In the modern age, vehicle manufacturers use both direct injection engines and port fuel injection, but more and more manufacturers are adopting the former.
If you are not aware of the difference between the two, you can learn the basics in the following helpful article.
You will also learn about the pros and cons of both direct injection and port injection systems.
Port Fuel Injection
Port injection fuel systems mix petrol with oxygen in an area of the engine known as the intake manifold, which is outside of the engine cylinders.
When mixed, the mixture is pulled into the engine cylinders and then combusted for fuel.
Port injection used to be the standard fuel injection system used for cars that run on petrol, but few new cars now use only port fuel injection.
That is mainly because the system is not as fuel-efficient as direct injection.
However, port fuel injection is still more fuel efficient than using a carburetor.
In direct injection engines, the petrol is not premixed with air as it is with the port fuel injection system.
Instead, direct injection involves using a fuel pump to inject fuel directly into the engine cylinders.
The fuel then mixes with oxygen before it is sparked by a spark plug.
To make that workable, direct engine cylinders have an additional access point so that the fuel injectors can spray the petrol directly into the chamber.
Also, direct injection engines have high-pressure fuel rails and fuel pumps to draw the fuel up to the engine.
In turn, the system creates fuel combustion of higher efficiency: more power is created using less fuel compared to standard engines.
While direct injection fuel has always been used for diesel vehicles, European, American, and Japanese vehicle manufacturers now mostly use direct injection in order to make everyday vehicles that are more fuel efficient.
To find out more about how direct injection works, check out this insightful article that is excellent at exploring the mechanics of direct injection engines.
What Is the Difference Between the Two?
In basic terms, direct injection engines involve fuel being sprayed directly into the engine cylinders, where the petrol is mixed with oxygen and burned, whereas port fuel injection systems pre-mix the petrol and oxygen in the intake manifold of the engine before the mixture is pulled into the engine cylinders and burned.
Some Cars Use Both Systems
Some carmakers have begun using a dual injection system in order to reap the benefits of both systems.
Cars that use dual injection would use both systems when they are driven at normal speeds and use direct injection when traveling at higher speeds.
Using a dual system also helps to prevent the build-up of carbon on intake valves.
The Pros and Cons of Direct Injection vs. Port Injection
In general, direct injection systems are better than port injection systems because they have a higher level of fuel efficiency.
However, the main drawback of a direct injection engine is that it is more expensive.
Port injection has pros and cons, too, though. In addition to being less expensive, port injection has the advantage of having more stable air and fuel mixtures at lower speeds. It also reduces the build-up of carbon from unburned fuel.
But the downsides of port injection, besides being less fuel-efficient, are that it provides less power for an engine that is the same size as one that uses direct injection, and it is worse for the environment.
And today’s car manufacturers are becoming as concerned about the environment as they are about vehicle safety.