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    The founder of the most famous marque in motor racing was no slouch behind the wheel, having driven for the Alfa Romeo works team before setting up the #Scuderia-Ferrari / #Enzo-Ferrari / #Ferrari .

    ENZO FERRARI
    Born 18 February #1898
    From Modena
    Died 14 August #1988
    Career highlights Winner of Circuito di Modena and Coppa Acerbo; set up Scuderia Ferrari


    Choosing a hero for this issue was the perfect excuse to go for the great man himself. So much has been written about him (including his own utterings in Piloti, che gente… and My Terrible Joys), I can only offer my observations.

    Enzo Ferrari certainly had a hard climb out of relative mediocrity to the heights of leading the most famous brand on earth. Born in 1898, he made it through most of WWI in the military, albeit in poor health, and eventually got himself employed at Costruzioni Meccaniche Nazionali. By 1920, he was with ALFA (later Alfa Romeo) at Portillo. Around 1921, by dint of hard work, determination and considerable charm, he was manager of the fledgling race team, as well as a driver in the company of Antonio Ascari, Ugo Sivocco and the inimitable Giuseppe Campari.

    Bringing Vittorio Jano from FIAT to replace designer Giuseppe Merosi was a brilliant stroke, moving Alfa into the serious quality car market. As he progressed, the forceful and pragmatic Ferrari noticed that aside from works drivers, there was no shortage of wealthy amateurs anxious to compete but not wanting to get their hands grubby. Harnessing his know-how, he set up his own firm at the end of 1929, preparing and transporting Alfas (and ’bikes) for clients.

    Some of the drivers turned out to be rather good at the job. Mario Tadini, for instance, could beat the best of the competition in hillclimbing and was a fine wheelman on the Mille Miglia. So, indeed was Felice Trossi, who took over the presidency of the Scuderia in 1932 when Alfredo Caniato (one of the original backers) resigned. As Enzo Ferrari prospered, his pace as a racer diminished. Sufficiently so that in August ’1931, competing in an ex-factory 8C in the Tre Provincia road race near Bologna, he was thrashed by a diminutive driver in an older 6C-1750. Nuvolari and Ferrari were made for each other.

    When Alfa withdrew from racing and handed over the hardware to Ferrari, with it came drivers such as Arcangeli, Borzachinni, and Nuvolari.

    Enzo’s ability to keep the balls in the air required copious doses of ingenuity, guile, willpower and sheer bravado. Juggling businessmen, racers, mechanics, suppliers, bankers, officials, press, public and family required the patience of Job and the skill of Niccolo Machiavelli. It was to be Ferrari’s life until he died in ’1988. Enzo derived great joy from the control and influence that he had over everyone he came into contact with – none more so than his drivers.

    Did he really connive Nuvolari’s win on the 1930 Mille Miglia by having Varzi informed that he was well ahead when he wasn’t? Was Eugenio Castellotti really summoned from his bed to the Modena Autodrome in March ’1957 and told the lap record there was no longer his? Was de Portago really told that Gendebien was ahead of him on the ’1957 Mille Miglia?

    The infatuation with Ferrari’s life and cars knows no bounds. Myth, folklore and truth are constantly intermingled. In the ’60s, books rarely dealt with the man himself. That’s all changed. Today you can find out who made his suits, how he dealt with those close to him, why he loved going to his house at Fiorano. Someone even tracked down who produced the ink with which he signed his documents and what sized bottles it came in. Who on earth would care?

    Okay… it was bought from Olivieri’s shop at Via Claudia 95, Maranello, which got it in 1-litre bottles from Gnocchi in Treviso. It was made by Francesco Rubinato, and Enzo liked the colour because his father used a purple pencil to mark out sheets of steel. There is likely only one noble person left who could add to the history, and she has no reason whatsoever to oblige.

    Ferrari finished second on the Targa Florio in #1920 driving an Alfa Romeo 40/60. Below: Enzo pictured in later life with his signature sunglasses.
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    DYNAMIC ART

    The new high-performance #Ferrari-488 GTB debuts at the Museo Enzo Ferrari. The new 488 GTB enhances the classic qualities of a normally aspirated Ferrari engine by using the very latest turbocharging technology. Its innovative design contributes to its remarkable handling. We took it to the Museo #Enzo-Ferrari for its debut. Words Antonio Ghini. Photography Alex Howe.

    The F1-90 was famously nicknamed the Papera – “the duck” – although the passing of time and its presence as part of the New York MoMA’s design collection has more than redeemed it. It was also the car with which Alain Prost led the Scuderia to its 100th grand prix victory, and the one he was driving when Ayrton Senna rammed into him at the first corner of the 1990 Japanese Grand Prix, robbing him of a seemingly guaranteed World Title. A highly memorable car.

    The #F1-90 , and its stunning 680hp V12, provided powerful philosophical and technical inspiration for 1995’s F50 supercar, its mid-mounted and enlarged 4.7-litre engine producing 520hp. The reason for mentioning this here is because it helps underline the symbiotic relationship between Formula One and supercars, a symbiosis Ferrari has explored more rigorously than anyone. Now, just as in the past, designers and engineers at Maranello are using advanced technology in order to optimise performance from cars that were primarily conceived for the road.

    The result is a contemporary road-going Gran Turismo Berlinetta that feels more than comfortable on the circuit, and puts 670hp at the driver’s disposal. It isn’t just about power, however, it’s also about torque. With 760Nm (561lb ft) from just 2,000rpm, this particular Berlinetta is capable of previously undreamt-of acceleration: zero to 100km/h takes three seconds while 200km/h is achieved in little more than eight. Let’s cut to the chase: this is full-blooded track performance in a car designed for the road. Prost would surely agree. The latest product of this mutually beneficial relationship carries a wonderfully evocative name: the 488 GTB. Forty years have passed since the unveiling of the first Ferrari eight-cylinder with a mid-mounted engine, the 308 GTB. Since then, eight-cylinder models have gained increasing importance in Maranello.

    This has been further consolidated with the repeated successes of V8-engined Prancing Horse models in international competition, most recently the multiple World Championship wins of the 458 GT. This car also triumphed in the GTE Pro Class at Le Mans in 2012 and 2014.

    Ferrari, of course, prefers to go beyond. Despite the proven success of its 458 Italia predecessor, the 488 GTB has a highly significant technical innovation: a twin-turbocharged engine. As you’d expect from Maranello, this solution has been interpreted in a wholly original way by Ferrari’s engineers: embracing the turbocharger’s advantages (increased horsepower, as well as delivering lower emissions and enhanced fuel consumption), and at the same time continuing to pursue technological excellence and to guarantee maximum engine performance.

    Performance is not an issue with the 488 GTB’s 3.9-litre engine (you arrive at the name, by the way, if you divide its cubic capacity by the number of cylinders). At 8,000rpm, 670hp (492KW) of power rips through the engine. In seventh gear, maximum torque of 760Nm is obtained with a response time of 0.8 seconds at 2,000rpm, guaranteeing spectacular acceleration and suggesting that turbo lag is non-existent. According to the long-standing Ferrari test driver Dario Benuzzi, the sensation during acceleration is very similar to that of driving the hybridised V12 LaFerrari.

    ‘A joy,’ is his brief, but telling, comment. You might think that Benuzzi’s job as test driver is the best in the world, but remember that developing such an important new Ferrari is a tricky balancing act. There’s also an awful lot of cutting-edge technology at play here. The 488 GTB’s shape isn’t just visually arresting, it also generates 50 per cent more downforce than the 458 Italia managed. There’s a double front splitter, active aerodynamic elements at the rear, and a “blown” rear spoiler, which is all F1 know-how.

    The seven-speed dual clutch gearbox uses Ferrari’s ingenious Variable Torque Management System to deliver a continuous and seamless flow of torque throughout the rev spectrum. Likewise, the electronic chassis controls offer a level of handling response that is unique in this kind of model. The 488’s lap time at Fiorano tells its own story: 1min 23secs is truly stellar, half a second faster than the track-oriented 458 Speciale and fully two seconds quicker than the 458 Italia.

    The combined effect of the electronic differential (E-diff) with both the F1-Trac traction control and the active damping shock absorbers gives the 488 GTB outstanding poise and accessibility. Ferrari’s Side Slip Angle Control 2 (SSC2) algorithm – first seen on the Speciale – gives the driver even more control and confidence than before. No less important is the improved effectiveness of the braking system. The 488’s stopping distance has been reduced by nine per cent at a speed of 200km/h compared to the previous model.

    Naturally, phenomenal work has been done on balancing the new car’s aerodynamic functionality and the requirement that a new Ferrari should be beautiful. The car’s side intakes are larger (to assist the turbo’s intercoolers), but the overall effect is harmonious and wonderfully integrated.

    As ever at Maranello, it’s all about teamwork. Ingegner Cardile’s aerodynamics team have worked closely with the engineers and the Design Department. The car’s strong personality comes across through the form of the sculpted side panel: a wide air inlet shaped with a distinctive “slash” signature. The characteristic concave shape, reminiscent of the original 308 GTB, is crossed by a fin that divides the entry channel in two.

    At the front end a wide aileron overlaps to improve the thermal efficiency of the radiators, which are suspended and detached from the volume. Two central spars are combined with a deflector that channels air towards the back. The wide, low rear is dominated by a series of aerodynamic features, with an innovative “forced draft” spoiler at the top, capable of generating downforce without increasing drag, and an aggressive diffuser, fitted with active cover panels and designed around two raised exhausts. The circular LED headlights are another new design feature. Behind the wheel, the driver has the sensation of being in a single-seater: everything is close at hand, with an ergonomic and functional cockpit.

    As is the case in F1 cars, the car’s steering wheel is multi-functional, with integral controls and the classic manettino dial, while the wraparound seats are spacious and agreeable (for the passenger as well, who even without a steering wheel, feels just as close to the action). It also demonstrates Ferrari’s continued commitment to creating high quality interiors – the 488’s is sensational. So it was that the 2015 Geneva International Motor Show provided the stage for the beginning of a completely new chapter for the Prancing Horse. The 488 GTB is the perfect representation of Enzo’s celebrated dictum: “My favourite Ferrari is always the next one.”

    TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS #2015 #Ferrari-488GTB
    Engine type – V8 90º Twin turbo
    Overall displacement – 3,902cc
    Maximum power (DIN) – 492kW (670CV) at 8,000rpm
    Maximum torque (DIN) – 760 Nm at 3,000rpm
    Length 4,568mm,
    Width 1,952mm,
    Height 1.213mm
    Weight distribution – 46.5% front, 53.5% rear
    0-100km/h – 3.0 secs
    0-200km/h – 8.3 secs
    Maximum speed – 330km/h
    Fuel consumption – 11.4 - litres/100km
    CO2 emissions – 260g/km

    “At the wheel, the driver has the sensation of being in a single-seater”

    The 488 GTB is a masterpiece of technical aesthetic achievement, where form and function are seamlessly matched. Its engine produces 670hp at 8,000rpm.

    Elegantly designed and beautifully finished, the 488 GTB’s interior has a cockpit feel. The steering wheel has all the main controls and the wraparound seats are separated by a control-switch bridge that completes the instrumentation. The graphics and interface of the infotainment system are also completely new.


    “The cabin’s ergonomics are F1-inspired, the quality simply sensational”

    “The 488 GTB’s #Fiorano lap time is simply stellar”

    The #Flavio-Manzoni / #Enrico-Cardile/ #Gianmaria-Fulgenzi / #Vittorio-Dini / #Matteo-Lanzavecchia
    new model - the research carried out on the 488 GTB’s aerodynamics created 50 per cent more downforce compared with the previous model. This is all thanks to the “blown” spoiler at the rear, which generates downforce without increasing drag, and of a diffuser that features active !laps. The two large exhausts have both been raised. Above, the men responsible for the car’s development, working in Design, Aerodynamics, Engine and Vehicle Dynamics. Left, the Project Leader, Gianmaria Fulgenzi.

    Among its main characteristics of the 488 GTB’s design are the pronounced air intakes on its beautifully sculpted flanks. Not only do they improve efficiency, they also underline the muscularity of the car’s performance, which scales new heights for an eight-cylinder #Ferrari .

    “The new Ferrari’s shape isn’t just beautiful, it’s also highly efficient”

    The front splitter, similar in execution to Ferrari’s World Championship winning GT racing model, improves thermal efficiency. A central deflector channels air towards the car’s flat underfloor. The 488 GTB’s aerodynamic efficiency of 1.67 is a new record for a road-going Ferrari. The overall design, combines elegance with aggressiveness.

    “There’s a very strong symbiosis between Ferrari’s road cars and #F1
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    It was a promising defeat. #F1 #Ferrari-F1

    Enzo’s belief that equally valuable lessons can be learned from defeats and victories is central to Ferrari’s entire history, prompting many moments of brilliance and some thrilling comebacks.

    The Romans used to say that success has many fathers, while defeat is always an orphan. Napoleon clearly shared this notion, so it might be surprising to learn that Enzo Ferrari, a character with a touch of Bonaparte about him (albeit one who evaded his Waterloo), never quite saw things like that.

    To Enzo’s way of thinking, Defeat, always with a capital D, was seen as a starting point. Yes, to quote another of his celebrated sayings, whoever came second in a race was simply the first last, but disappointment should never lead to resignation. Occasionally, Il Commendatore would use a seemingly contradictory term to describe a defeat: “promising”. It demonstrates the intellectual energy of the man. The ability to avoid the self-pity of the defeated. The tenacity of someone who never stops planning, organising, experimenting.

    One of his best-loved maxims, “the finest victory is the next one”, was born from a desire to always accentuate the positive. At Maranello they refused to give up, a characteristic that’s as resolute as ever. Like any other successful company, the history of Ferrari is littered with difficult moments, some dramatic and some even tragic. Despite the disappointments, that glorious story hasn’t been broken; the dream hasn’t been shattered. The record books speak for themselves.

    Take the autumn of 1974. At the peak of a #Formula-1 One season marked by the Scuderia’s renewed competitive edge, with Niki Lauda at the wheel alongside #Clay-Regazzoni , there was an unexpected set-back. On a gloomy afternoon at the Watkins Glen circuit in the US, #Emerson-Fittipaldi won the title for McLaren. It was a stinging blow for the Prancing Horse and came after a decade of frustrating grand prix results.

    The following morning Enzo ordered Mauro Forghieri to start preparing the 312 T: a great car, noted for its revolutionary transverse gearbox. Within 12 months, Lauda celebrated his comeback as World Champion, demonstrating (talking of well-known sayings) that, in the sporting sense at least, revenge isn’t necessarily a dish best served cold. It’s best hot, almost boiling, if there’s a Ferrari involved.

    A defeat at the start of the Swinging Sixties was also promising. Although waiting for the cultural and musical upheaval provided by The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, technology buffs in England were well ahead of their times, introducing the rear engine placement on grand prix cars. A lot has been said about the Drake’s apparent nostalgia for the countryside, and how he liked to tell colleagues that the oxen went ahead of the plough in the fields.

    However, his love of rural life (Enzo wrote about seeing something in the spirit of workers in the fields around Modena that suggested they could become mechanics) didn’t stop research and development. Far from it. By 1961, the 156 F1 had moved its oxen to the rear. The car, designed by Carlo Chiti and driven by Phil Hill, scored a bullseye, bringing the world title back to Maranello.

    In other words, the company founded by Enzo in 1947 has in its DNA the knowledge that the motto “try and try again” isn’t just a homage to Galileo, to Descartes and to Dante’s Paradiso (as his muse, Beatrice, could be considered Dante’s literary and romantic Ferrari). Trying and trying again allows you to sublimate the very idea of defeat. Reinterpreted as another stimulus, painful in its immediate outcomes (who likes to lose?), but hugely valuable in terms of what can be learned in the dark hours of disillusionment.

    Staying with F1, it’s perhaps no coincidence that, in more than 60 years of grand prix escapades, Ferrari is the only team never to have taken a break. The Scuderia has always been there, since #1950 . Others (or rather all of them, from #Mercedes to #Renault , #Honda to #BMW , #Ford to #Toyota ) have come and gone, often due to a lack of results. In so doing, Ferrari’s competitors have unwittingly borne witness to the uniqueness of the Maranello manufacturer.

    But how can you then escape from the magnetic intensity of a memory that takes you straight back to the events of 1982? An annus horribilis for the Drake and his people, struck down by irreparable grief for Gilles Villeneuve, killed on the track at Zolder, followed by Didier Pironi’s awful accident, which saw him confined to hospital when he seemed to have the championship in his pocket. Enzo’s response to these defeats, which were about so much more than merely failing to reach a chequered flag ahead of anyone else, was an extraordinary declaration of bravery and valour.

    Forghieri didn’t give up his responsibilities as Technical Director: amid tears and gritted teeth he carried on with the development of the 126C2, a car propelled by a powerful turbo engine. And, at the end of that ill-fated season, thanks also to the contribution of the Frenchman, Patrick Tambay, and the Italian-American, Mario Andretti, the Prancing Horse went on to win the World Constructors Title.

    A strong sense of identity surfaces among the fragments of glory brought back up to now, extending beyond the legacy of the Founder. Because in #2000 , for instance, when #Mika-Häkkinen ’s #McLaren seemed certain to prolong a barren stretch that had already lasted more than 20 years, promising defeats in Austria, Germany, Hungary and Belgium were the launch pads for an astonishing change of fortunes. At Monza and Indianapolis, Suzuka and Malaysia, the legendary Michael Schumacher turned the lessons he’d learned into gold. The German won every race, in a car designed by Rory Byrne. And a new Ferrari chapter began.

    What rivals find hard to understand is the lack of a particular word in Ferrari’s vocabulary: resignation. Because resignation has never found a home at Maranello.


    After a very difficult #2014 season the Scuderia confirmed Enzo Ferrari’s belief that defeats could still have a promising outcome and force the team to try even harder next time. In #2015 , #Ferrari duly returned to the elite group of competitors, thanks to the determination of its drivers, #Sebastian-Vettel (below) and #Kimi-Raikkonen (right).

    A strong identity surfaces among the glory.
    “Bravery and valour have always been key Ferrari attributes”




    Ferrari team work found its greatest reward during what is now known as the “Schumacher era”. The long title chase, which started in 1996, came to fruition in #1999 , bringing five Drivers Titles and six Constructors Titles to #Maranello . Or, to be precise, six Drivers Titles and eight Constructors Titles, considering that Kimi Räikkönen’s (pictured on this page) 2007 title and the 2007 and 2008 Constuctors Titles had their origins in the German driver’s Scuderia heyday.


    In Brief

    Enzo Ferrari used to keep all the car pieces that failed during races in a cupboard he called “the museum of errors”

    The collection was not only an example of his wit, but also evidence of the man’s intuition and firm belief that every single part of a car was an important component. A message that he was always keen to pass on to his team.

    Publicly, Enzo would always blame a car’s malfunction on a cheap element worth just a few Lire, but had a different message for his staff. He insisted on the absolute care of every minute detail, because even something apparently insignificant could determine the outcome of a race.

    Niki Lauda was famous for his rather direct style of talking. His comments were often censored and repackaged before reaching Enzo’s ears thanks to a dedicated team of mediators close to Il Commendatore.

    The Austrian driver arrived at Maranello in #1974 after a difficult season for Ferrari and soon made some caustic remarks about the car during testing. His comments were altered to ensure that Enzo would not take the opinions of a newly appointed driver who had yet to prove his worth in the wrong way.

    Enzo’s mediators were rewarded with the successful #1975 season, when Lauda won the Drivers Title in the #Ferrari-312T .

    THIS PAGE

    Niki Lauda’s 312 T, with its unique shape and transverse gearbox, seen here at Monaco in 1975, brought the Scuderia its first title in 11 years. Bottom left, Patrick Tambay in #1982 , Ferrari’s annus horribilis, dominated by the Scuderia but forever marked by the death of Gilles Villeneuve and Didier Pironi’s accident.

    At Maranello they have always refused to give up.


    The eternal battle – sometimes successful, sometimes difficult – against British rivals has provided the plotline of many chapters in the history of #Ferrari . #Phil-Hill in #1962 , pictured right at #Monaco , and John Surtees in #1965 , pictured below at #Silverstone , were unable to retain the world titles won in the previous years.


    World Champion in #1964 with #John-Surtees , #Enzo-Ferrari is pictured here the following year, when the Scuderia was defeated but never gave up. This attitude paid off when Sebastian Vettel won the Malaysian Grand Prix in March #2015 (opposite).
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    My favourite #Ferrari is the next one. #Enzo-Ferrari 's famous phrase perfectly captures the excitement surrounding the launch of the #Ferrari-488GTB . We follow the car as it undergoes: a series of stringent tests in the rarefied air and scorching temperatures of South Africa. #2015

    Amedeo Felisa, Ferrari CEO and a highly experienced automotive engineer, has his own particular update on Enzo Ferrari’s famous quote, “My favourite Ferrari is the next one.” For Felisa, ‘Our commitment when it comes to designing and developing new models is to search for excellent results by working on each individual detail. We do this to guarantee our customers the maximum enjoyment and, at the same time, reduce as far as possible the problems that driving in certain conditions may bring them up against.’

    The new V8, the #Ferrari-488 GTB, boasting a performance worthy of a Formula One car of very recent vintage, with a power output of 670hp and capable of hitting 0-100km/h in a little over three seconds, has just been revealed. However, like all Ferraris, it continues to undergo tests. Not on familiar roads, but in the most difficult conditions. Indeed, the 488 GTB has just returned from a long session in South Africa, in extreme temperatures. ‘In the development stages for each new model, we begin by using all the virtual and real simulation technology, testing engines, gearboxes and vehicle behaviour,’ explains Raffaele De Simone, the engineer and test driver who works alongside the expert Dario Benuzzi on the appraisal of new cars.

    ‘This gives us, in relatively short time frames, definite information about what has to be done in order to get a final vehicle specification. However, in order to arrive at that final decision, we spend a lot of time on both the road and track. In fact, it’s only feedback from drivers that enables us to make cars that are both effective and highly enjoyable.’

    Enjoyable. The word has returned to Maranello. It equates to pure driving pleasure, even at the limit, without forcing the driver to take unnecessary risks. ‘All our experience makes this possible,’ says Felisa. ‘The GT championship races give us a lot of ideas; our road cars are very close in concept to those we send out on to the track, and industry legislation means we have to strive for maximum engine efficiency, while also keeping consumption down, and find optimum vehicle efficiency through tyres and aerodynamics.’

    These words are underlined by the numerous titles won by eight-cylinder Ferraris, and the various class victories at Le Mans. ‘Then there is the contribution of the exclusive data Ferrari has at its disposal, collected since 2005 under the XX Programme [discussed elsewhere in this Issue] and providing additional feedback during the developing of new cars,’ Felisa continues. ‘The data collected using telemetry during the many track sessions with “customer-testers” driving the FXX and 599XX enable us to compare the behaviour of professional drivers with that of people who are enthusiasts, but less experienced when it comes to driving at the very limit. This allows us to understand conditions that cause hesitations or reactions that are not appropriate to the circumstances.’

    That’s part of the genius of the XX Programme. Working their way through the various settings, via the steering wheelmounted manettino, Ferrari experts can monitor the driver’s inputs. The resulting software and electronics work in tandem with the car’s chassis to optimise both the vehicle’s and the driver’s responses, overcoming problems or even avoiding them in the first place.

    Based on the analysis of the data collected by test drivers on both the road and track, as well as from GT racing and XX Programme Corse Clienti sessions, the control unit, which acts on the vehicle’s different systems, is also calibrated. ‘The controls take nothing away from the driver’s role, but intervene if and when it is necessary,’ De Simone explains. ‘No one uses road and track tests as much as us.’

    The images on these pages illustrate perfectly how these tests are carried out. A coordinated team of technicians and test drivers goes from one place to another in hot or cold countries, with a car, equipment and instruments for analysis. To better understand just why Enzo’s celebrated phrase remains so much “of the moment”, Felisa discusses the engine, which has now, after those heroic years of the F40, returned to turbo, albeit as part of a technical scenario that has completely changed.

    ‘On an aspirated engine, there are two options to increase power: either you increase the engine size or increase the number of revs. The end result works perfectly in certain conditions of use – the most extreme ones – but if an engine of this type is used at low revs or in town, it loses much of its efficiency. The turbo offers greater efficiency, with the added advantage of a reduction in engine size. On the 488 GTB we went down to 3.9 litres, while increasing power.’

    However, these things are rarely simple when it comes to a Ferrari. It’s one thing to apply the turbo to a normal engine, but another to create a successful turbo based on a Prancing Horse engine, which is recognised as being the world’s best. Now that greater combustion efficiency has been achieved, with multiple-ignition direct injection and mechanical efficiency with the reduction in pumping (a constant objective of the Company’s engineers), work on the turbo becomes a valuable complement to achieving the final result.

    ‘The technology of the turbo is a technical opportunity when combined with direct injection because it allows greater efficiency,’ emphasises Felisa. ‘But two drawbacks must be overcome: the initial inertia when the turbo starts up, which in the past resulted in turbo lag, and the quality of the engine noise as the turbo is on the exhaust and therefore has an effect on it. Our work has meant we have been able to obtain all the advantages of the turbo – increased power with lower emissions and consumption – without its deficiencies.’

    Of course, there’s another vital area, which Ferrari has been uniquely placed to take advantage of in its road car development: aerodynamics. The 488 GTB clearly benefits from fast-moving progress in this area The first car produced after research into the “sixth face”, ie on the floor of the car, was 1994’s F355, the 488 GTB’s predecessor, and a car designed and developed by Felisa. The meeting of design and aerodynamics is one of the great strengths of the new model.

    It’s no secret that various tools and models have been created to allow new cars to be developed almost completely virtually. Nor is it a secret that Maranello has always produced cars with the aim of making them different from others. They have to be unique, technologically exact and, above all, enjoyable. The driver has always been at the very centre of this overall philosophy. Enzo Ferrari’s modus operandi was a reflection of that idea. It’s also something that De Simone sums up in a highly significant couple of sentences: ‘It’s necessary to work, and to work hard, to make dream cars. Because no one has invented a dream simulator yet.’
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    My father didn’t write down his speeches, instead he would prepare a couple of phrases that would sum up his thoughts. Obviously, his audience very much determined how he wanted to come across.’

    With these words, Piero Ferrari explains how Enzo’s famous, and occasionally obscure, sayings became points of reference for his staff, as well as forming the core of a Company philosophy that is still followed to this day. His famous phrases and maxims have proven remarkably enduring, outlasting their historical context and the specific events for which they were originally composed. They are important to everyone who works at #Ferrari today, from the managers to the staff on the production lines, and especially to those heading a team, who seek to inspire their staff. This is a concept of which Ferrari Chairman Sergio Marchionne gives particular value to. ‘Enzo’s press conferences were legendary because they underlined the ideas he wanted to promote,’ continues Piero. ‘He used to prepare meticulously, tailoring his answers to any questions he might be asked.’

    Considering Enzo’s pragmatic approach to press and marketing for his Company, there is much to learn from a person who was so close to him, and who is able to explain which phrases are the most significant for him.

    ‘I know it is one of my father’s most famous quotes, but “My favourite Ferrari is the next one” is important because my father believed that a company needed to look to the future to be successful and never stop improving. But actually there is another, less famous phrase, which accurately sums up his beliefs: “Look to the past only to avoid making the same mistakes again.”’

    As well as his unique way of expressing himself, Enzo used his charm to get his point across and render even the most outlandish request reasonable. He took the #Italian-Grand-Prix very seriously, demanding technical modifications on his cars right up until a week or two before the start of the race. ‘For example, in May he would ask for new cylinder heads for a car that was due to compete at #Monza the following September… During the meeting, everyone would look around the room at a loss, but they soon got to work and it was done!’

    Enzo’s attitude towards unforeseen events can be summed up by another saying: “It is easier to see your weak points when you lose than when you win.” For someone who experienced triumph as well as defeat, this deftly illustrates how he never liked to rest on his laurels.

    Among Piero’s fond memories of his father, there is one that he considers more important than all the others: the thing that seduced Enzo as a driver, as the head of the Scuderia, and later as a constructor, was always the engine. ‘He loved engines and talked at length about them; he loved them because they made a piece of metal come alive with sound and power.’

    That sound was music to his ears, the same music that even today, together with his famous phrases, accompanies Ferrari, pushing it to become the brand that has become famous like none other the world over.

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    The #Enzo-Ferrari , the constructor: the first and last act. Left, in #1947 , at the wheel of the first car to carry his brand and his name, the #Ferrari-125S ; below, in #1988 , just before his passing, Enzo enters his offices at #Fiorano .
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    LEAVES OTHER FERRARIS IN ITS WAKE

    This unique Ferrari-powered racing boat features a V12 engine that raced at Le Mans, Spa and in the Carrera Panamericana - before taking to the water. #1957 #San-Marco-Ferrari #KD800

    Words Gerald Guetat // PHOTOGRAPHY Henri Thibault. #San-Marco #Ferrari-KD800

    Sitting in the cockpit of this single-seater, the pilot activates the fuel pump and turns over the engine for a few seconds on the starter. Then a few pumps of the throttle to fill the carburettors, the magneto is set to position number three and a finger pushes the starter button again. This time it lights an inferno in 12 cylinders. The tachometer needle jerks round to 1300rpm yet, although the driver keeps his foot down, engine speed soon decreases to 1200pm and it remains ticking over. The water in the tank is heated slowly while oil pressure drops gradually from 100 to 50psi. The sound is fantastic, every single moving part of this historic V12 running like clockwork.

    Briefly, the pilot contemplates Ascari and Villoresi, who might have won the Le Mans 24 Hours in #1953 behind this engine if it hadn't been for clutch failure - but today he's not sitting in that car, nor any car. Meanwhile, the water temperature has risen to 60 degrees. The pilot shuts down the engine so that the heat is distributed and continues to rise naturally. Three minutes later he fires it up again and engages the propeller shaft by means of a specially designed gimbal, and keeps his foot on the clutch pedal. He must now increase the acceleration while slipping the clutch to drive the propeller without stalling.

    The red racer starts to trace its wake of white foam across Lake Como; the engine is hot, and now the driver can attempt take-off. Lift speed is achieved at the point where most boats have already reached their limit but, here, the party has just begun.

    Unlike the other two Ferrari-powered classic racing boats still in existence, this is the only one equipped with an engine taken directly from a prestigious race car - the others have motors that were always intended to power boats. This V12's amazing adventure started on the track at La Sarthe in the year of the first World Sports Car Championship, when Commendatore unleashed a pack of three 340MM coupes. Among the contenders, one - chassis number 0318AM - was specially prepared with a reinforced chassis and a higher-capacity engine of 4494cc, actually a 375 engine directly derived from Aurelio Lampredi's #1950 and #1951 #Formula-1 design. This particular unit was reported as having been prepared for the Indy 500 in #1952 with machined (rather than forged) con-rods.

    Entrusted to driving aces #Alberto-Ascari and Luigi Villoresi, the 375 beat the lap record at Le Mans at 181.5km/h (112.5mph), dominating the race and leading at 17 hours only for the clutch to fail at 19 hours, after 229 of a total of 304 laps - thanks, possibly, to the increased torque of its bigger engine. Of the two other cars, only 0322AM finished the race (in fifth, driven by brothers Paolo and Gianni Marzotto), while Hawthorn and Farina's 0320AM had been disqualified after 12 hours.

    After Le Mans, the three cars were sent back to Pininfarina to be modified for the rest of the season. The next race was the Spa 24 Hours in Belgium on 26 July, for which the other two cars were also fitted with 375 engines. Hawthorn and Farina won the race in 0322AM, #Ascari and #Villoresi retired in 0320AM (another clutch failure), while 0318AM (entrusted to Umberto Maglioli and Piero Carini) did not finish.

    It next crossed the starting line in Mexico, all three sister cars having left for the #Carrera-Panamericana under the private flag of Franco Cornacchia's Scuderia Guastalla. This time 0318AM was driven by Antonio Stagnoli and Giuseppe Scotuzzi, who died when the car left the road at almost 180mph after a tyre burst. Only the engine remained intact, and it was preserved in the garages of Scuderia Guastalla in Milan - until Guido Monzino bought it to mount in the 800kg-class racer he had ordered from Milanese boatbuilder San Marco. Owned by champion boat-racer and Ferrari multiple water speed record-holder Oscar Scarpa, the San Marco yard was a perfect match for Ferrari. This boat, hull number 069, was built in 1957 after the precious V12 was checked by the Ferrari Corsa department at #Maranello . #Guido-Monzino was well-known for his chain of Standa stores, but even better for his expeditions: their wide media coverage almost made him a national hero. He was a wealthy explorer who financed his own adventures to the tops of the highest mountains, the North Pole and other remote spots - a thrill-seeker who loved dramatic landscapes and the feeling of living without limits.

    His raceboat was of the 'three point7 type that dominated powerboat racing from the Second World War through to the mid-1970s. Its hull is designed with two wide sponsons at the front while the rear ends with a narrow transom, supporting the propeller and rudder mounts. Therefore, at full speed, the hull is in contact with water at only three points, minimising friction between the hull and the water.

    Cooling is a crucial factor. The engine coolant is fed by a 20-litre buffer tank, with a heat exchanger to warm water that is collected from the lake by means of a dynamic scoop under one of the forward floats. This is only effective once the boat is running at a speed of 25-30mph. The pilot has to wait for the water to get up to temperature before revving up to 5000-6000rpm by adjusting the clutch to send the required torque to the propeller, which rotates at the same speed as the engine's output shaft.

    Ideally, the lake surface should not be too flat: small ripples actually help to tear the hull away from the surface of the water from about 50mph. At that point the boat becomes a true hydroplane, running faster and faster. Just as Monzino wanted it.

    Monzino's offices were in Milan, but he spent as much time as possible at one of the most beautiful houses on Lake Como: the Villa del Balbianello, where the James Bond film Casino Royale was more recently made. There he enjoyed both a sporting and refined existence, with his Ferrari racing boat brought to his private dock on request from a nearby boatyard. The servants loved to watch him, impeccably dressed, climbing into the cockpit of the red San Marco, casting off and speeding towards Como with a fantastic roar from its V12 engine. Within 15 minutes, he would alight at the Yacht Club where a Ferrari awaited to whisk him off to Milan. Now that's the way to commute.

    Monzino was an accomplished water pilot, yet the only race that attracted him was the Raid Pa via-Venezia, a competition on a wild river that was similar in spirit to some of his great adventures (see panel, left).

    By the late 1960s, Monzino had acquired some of the most expensive cars in Maranello's catalogue, such as a 400 Superamerica and a #Ferrari-250GT-California-Spider . Yet his aquatic escapades had become less frequent. Stored at the boatyard near his romantic villa on the lake, the red racer had been almost abandoned when a young student of the Fine Arts Academy of Milan discovered it in #1969 and was fascinated by the aesthetics of this strange machine. Monzino reluctantly accepted a meeting with the young Austrian eccentric, who went by the name of Dody Jost, and a deal was done. Jost took deliver)' of the boat, which was in need of restoration: three-point hulls are delicate and one doesn't launch a #Ferrari racing V12 onto the water without taking certain precautions. Jost went on to own the Nautilus hotel, with its own private dock on Lake Como, and kept his boat there for a few years before starting its full restoration.

    The hull was entrusted to respected Como competition boatyard Luccini, while the engine went to the Diena & Silingardi Sport Auto workshop, specialists in rare Ferraris on Modena's Via Toscanini. Conducted piece by piece, the process took years to complete. It was recently exhibited at the Museo Casa Natale #Enzo-Ferrari in #Modena , where it fascinated not only the public but also the historians of the Maranello factor)'. For years they had paid little attention to Ferrari-engined boats yet in 2012 Ferrari Classiche itself made the trip to survey it. After a detailed examination, its engine received official recognition.

    Collectable Ferraris with an exceptional pedigree can reach sky-high prices at auction: witness 0320AM, the 340/375MM sister car to the one from which the San Marco's engine was taken, which found a buyer for nearly €10 million at the RM Villa d'Erba sale in #2013 (and which was featured). But the San Marco's potential monetary value is of no great concern to Dody Jost.

    'Smaller racers were powered by Alfa Romeo or BPM engines of 2.0 litres or less, whereas these 800kg "monsters" had 4.0-to-6.0-litre engine displacement, and sometimes even more,' he says. 'Driving is a delicate operation requiring a lot of concentration, because to go fast the hull must hover to avoid contact with the water except at the extremities of the lateral floats and the rear propeller. The engine torque is critical because, when starting up, the boat behaves like a mono water-skier. Fast engine response is essential to get the boat to lift out of the water.

    This is where the multi-disc clutch is crucial to provide maximum torque for lift-off. The hull of a racer is built to go fast; it is much more manoeuvrable when it is gliding across the surface of the water.'

    There's a secret to steering this boat, too: 'The profile of the rudder is designed for high speeds and responds immediately to the slightest command from the wheel, which requires a lot of concentration. The super-cavitation propeller is only half-immersed in water and the pilot can hear its characteristic roar at full throttle: 7000rpm. The torque of the propeller rotates in a clockwise direction and tends to turn the boat to the right. This is why a small winglet is fixed under the left sponson to help stabilise the boat.'

    Even that sleight of engineering hand can't help in all circumstances, however. 'Race circuits always turned counter-clockwise around the buoys. Attacking such a turn is very tricky because it requires the pilot to reduce speed but not by too much, to prevent the hull from sinking back into the water, which would bring the craft to a halt within a few metres. One can imagine the race conditions of a pack of boats sending up huge white sheaves of water as they slip out of their trajectories in the furious chop generated by the hulls and propellers.'

    How does it compare with racing a car? 'The powerboat champions had no reason to be envious of their colleagues on the track in terms of courage, strength and sense of anticipation. However, as in automobile racing, you can recover on a straight stretch, casing the acceleration to maintain 6000-6500rpm and attain maximum speed over the water. It's an exhilarating sensation - matched by the fabulous roar of the #Ferrari-375MM V12. We'll certainly take his word for that.

    Boat #1957 #San-Marco-Ferrari-KD800
    ENGINE 6494cc V12, SOHC per bank, three #Weber 40IF4C four-barrel carburettors
    POWER 340bhp @ 7000rpm
    TRANSMISSION Propeller shaft with manual attachment and multi-disc clutch, twin-blade propeller.
    WEIGHT 800kg
    PERFORMANCE Top speed c140mph


    Attacking the Raid Pavia-Venezia
    The longest river race in the world

    The raid #Pavia-Venezia , founded in #1929 , still occupies a unique place in the hearts of powerboat racing enthusiasts in Italy. The route followed some 280 miles of the wide and wild Po river, including locks and unstable sandbanks that were hidden just below the water, as well as blind curves and threatening bridge piles, all passed at high speed.

    Taking part is a true adventure through relative wilderness: no wonder it attracted entrepreneur and explorer Guido Monzino. In #1958 he gave Ferrari third place, the best ranking it would ever achieve in the race, averaging 88.26km/h (54.72mph). He finished the race after U hours 36 minutes, AO minutes behind the husband-and- wife crew of Tarcisio and Amelia Marega (in a Timossi-BPM) and 30 minutes behind the great champion of the race, Paolo Petrobelli, with mechanic M Pacchioni (Timossi-BPM).

    This was an honourable performance for a casual racing driver. At the time, the regulations required a two-man crew: the driver took the wheel while the ‘mechanic’ was supposed to go down into the river bed to dig the boat out of sandbanks. Today, the race no longer exists in its original form, due to low waters in late spring and, sadly, a lack of sponsorship.

    Left and above. This boat was originally built by San Marco of Milan in 1957 for the Italian adventurer and chain store owner Guido Monzino, who used it to commute from his villa on Lake Como. Today it is fully restored and kept by the owner of a Lake Como hotel.

    ‘THE RED RACER TRACES ITS WAKE ACROSS LAKE COMO, THE ENGINE IS HOT AND THE DRIVER CAN ATTEMPT TAKE OFF

    Right. Le Mans 1953: car no 12 was specially equipped with a 4.5-litre ‘375’ V12, but retired due to clutch failure - it subsequently donated its engine to this San Marco racing boat; at speed on Lake Como, fast enough for hydroplaning to take effect.

    Right, top and bottom Steering wheel controls a rear rudder, though an additional fin counteracts the torque effect of the V12 - seen here with its triple Weber carburettors, and capable of a 340bhp output.
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    I have always been fascinated by automotive history or stories that have been lost in my lifetime. For instance, did you know there’s a Firebird with a Ferrari engine in it? Bill Mitchell was the heir to #General-Motors design legend Harley Earl, and himself designer of such icons as the Stingray and Camaro. Pontiac was kind of GM’s performance division, with cars such as the GTO and the Firebird, and Bill wanted to impress upon his engineers some of the overhead-cam engines being developed in Europe at that time. So what he did was call his friend, Enzo Ferrari, and ask him to ship over a motor. And Ferrari did! #Pontiac-Firebird

    Bill put it in a concept car called the Pegasus, based on a #1970 Firebird. It had sort of a #Testa-Rossa -looking front end - based on a rendering by Gerry Palmer - which was going to be the new Camaro. But when Bill saw the renderings he incorporated it into the Pegasus.

    That wasn’t the end of the story, though. Bill complained about the lack of performance with the automatic transmission fitted in the Pegasus, so he got back on the phone to Ferrari, who agreed to send him something else.
    That ‘something else’ turned out to be a competition motor out of a Daytona. It was sent to Luigi Chinetti, who was running #NART in Connecticut, and he put the competition motor into the Pegasus, got rid of the auto 'box and replaced it with a five-speed manual.

    The part I find fascinating is that Bill could call up Ferrari and say, ‘Hey listen, send me a motor; I want to put it in a Pontiac.’ And it’s no problem. Obviously it was a different time - GM was a huge multi-national corporation and Ferrari was pretty much a small outfit, even as late as 1970. Can you imagine that happening today? There was a lot more camaraderie back then.

    He took a lot of heat from GM for building a Pontiac powered by a Ferrari, and was forbidden from showing the vehicle at any event that was put on by GM. But Bill felt that with his Pegasus, #Pontiac was given the impetus to develop its engines. Bill loved this thing, so he worked out an agreement with GM to lease the vehicle for a dollar. The agreement stated that when Bill died the Pegasus would be returned to GM in the condition in which it had left.

    I think he fancied himself as a bit of a racer, and while running the Pegasus around Road America he crashed into a bridge. But the bridge he crashed into was the Bill Mitchell Bridge, named in his honour. He’s probably the only guy to design a car and race it and crash it into a bridge named after him. The crash was hushed up and the car was loaded onto a truck and taken back to Detroit. Luckily Bill was not hurt, and he never mentioned it. He held up his end of the bargain by having the car restored back to the way he got it before he died in #1988 .

    ‘BILL MITCHELL IS THE ONLY GUY TO DESIGN A GAR, AND RAGE IT, AND CRASH IT INTO A BRIDGE NAMED AFTER HIM’

    I am one of the few people who have driven the car. In essence it is just like a Ferrari; it had four-wheel disc brakes. Ferraris of the period still had live axles and leaf springs, as did the Firebird. And with the five-speed transmission and the Ferrari gauges, it really was a lot like driving a Ferrari. All the power was at the top end, and it had a fantastic sound. I put quite a few miles on it.

    I think the #Pegasus showed the Pontiac and GM engineers what a real sporty engine was like. The Ferrari was about three litres and American engines were around seven litres-it got them thinking about what a little engine can do. Don’t forget, in 1970 if you were a car enthusiast you knew what a Ferrari was, but if you weren’t really a car person, it was some exotic thing. The fact that the GM engineers spelled it wrong on the crate tells it all - when the engine was sent to GM, someone wrote on it 'FARARI ENGINE, ITALIA’.

    I saw the original crate that the engine arrived in. I opened it - it hadn’t been opened for about 35 years - and in there was the original engine. It was the one that was taken out and replaced with the Daytona version, and it was just thrown in there, with pulleys and motor mounts and what have you. What is that engine worth today? Hundreds of thousands of dollars, probably.

    So why did #Ferrari send the engine to #GM ? We always think of Enzo as being a bit of a recluse yet, don’t forget, in the 1950s he gave Henry Ford a Ferrari. And Henry Ford gave him a #1955 #T-Bird . #Enzo-Ferrari actually came to Detroit and walked through the Corvette studio. I never knew that. So Enzo was actively courting suitors and meeting car designers, giving people engines and transmissions.

    ‘Try that in your car and see how you like it...' Bill Mitchell did, and he liked it a lot. Sadly, GM was not so enthused.

    Car #1971 #Pontiac-Firebird-Pegasus-Concept

    JAY LENO

    Comedian and talk show legend Jay Leno is one of the most famous entertainers in the USA. He is also a true petrolhead, with a massive collection of cars and bikes (see www. jaylenosgarage. com). Jay was speaking with Jeremy Hart.
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    Historical reinterpretation Ferrari Berlinetta Lusso

    In the finest tradition of Italian coachbuilding, Touring Superleggera has unveiled a stunning rebodied version of Ferrari’s mighty F12 supercar. Dale Drinnon drives it. Photography Martyn Goddard.

    Funny thing about secrets: after you know them, they seem obvious, and it's hard to understand why the people so mesmerised as we motor sublimely past can't identify what it is they're coveting. Surely the classic eggcrate grille, the signature character lines highlighting the graceful flanks, and that feral V12 yowl could mean only one thing: Italy's most illustrious manufacturer and the design house that shaped its first real series-made automobile are back together. Unofficially, at least, and in limited numbers for the lucky few.

    The manufacturer, of course, is Ferrari, the design house is #Carrozzeria-Touring , coachbuilder for the seminal #Tipo-166MM of #1948 , and the car we're driving is called the #Berlinetta-Lusso , produced by Touring on the awe-inspiring #Ferrari-F12 platform. And the reason for the hush-hush is that we're hustling this as-of-yet one-of-a-kind objet d'art round the public roads of Northern Italy, bold as thunder and twice as loud, more than a week before its world debut at the Geneva international motor show. Life just doesn't get no more Old School Italian than this.

    Then again, the whole project is pretty Old School Italian. Carrozzeria Touring, now formally called #Carrozzeria #Touring #Superleggera , was among the pioneers of what we now consider quintessential Italian automotive style. Founded in 1926, it set trends throughout the era when owners of taste and distinction had their machinery custom-tailored as readily as their clothing. Touring had the inside line on competition bodywork, thanks to its trademark Superleggera, or 'super-light' construction, which is why #Enzo-Ferrari , familiar with its work from his #Alfa-Romeo experience, turned that way for the heavily race-oriented #166MM .

    Touring had some spectacularly hard times in the post-1950s, going inactive for decades (though not quite bankrupt, thanks to the heroic efforts of long-time CEO and co-founder's son, Carlo Anderloni), but since its acquisition in 2006 by Dutch concern Zeta Europe BV, also owners of Borrani, it has successfully reapplied the early company principles. They concentrate on one-off and short production runs of singular designs for a discerning clientele, manufacturer's concept studies, niche production of contract specialist jobs: the full repertoire of the typical small- manufacturer business model. Dedicated Italian car enthusiasts will doubtless be familiar with its critically acclaimed #Alfa-8C -based Disco Volante.

    'From any angle the final shape is cleaner than the original car’s, and extremely well balanced’

    It was indeed such handiwork that enticed an anonymous but prominent Ferrari collector to approach Touring Superleggera for a private commission: translating the intensely high-performance and aggressively styled F12 supercar into a more elegant, more Lusso idiom. In addition, he wanted it configured in the three-box architecture now rare among performance coupes, with visually separate volumes for motor, interior and boot. It would be, in essence, an updated version of the great front-engined Ferrari uber-GTs of old, such as the exclusive and potent 500 Superfast.

    That collector must have been slightly puzzled, however, when Louis de Fabribeckers, Touring's head of design, seemed already way ahead of him. 'I was dreaming about this car for years and years and years,' he says, 'since I first started designing cars, certainly; a three- volume car, simple, very classic, with the long bonnet and small greenhouse. It's one of my favourite themes of all time, so it was very natural, very satisfying, to finally build it.'

    Louis also says the F12 was eminently adaptable to this composition although, as per his usual practice, extensive time and effort went into reaching optimum proportions before any other elements were even seriously considered ('If you start with the wrong proportions, nothing else you do can ever make up for them'). The roofline curvature in particular required significant attention, and from every direction, to reach exactly the effect he wanted, due to the conversion from two- box to three-box profile. Integrating the rear overhang was, not surprisingly, another delicate issue when adding a boot volume, while also critically 'finishing' the car's lines, instead of merely ending them.

    Viewed from any angle, the final shape is noticeably cleaner than the original car's, and extremely well balanced. The surface treatments and detailing (what Louis calls the styling, as opposed to the design) are simpler, too. There is little in the way of added excitement or extraneous flourishes, and both the nose and tail are underplayed compared with the fashion of racer-rep grittiness.

    The grille, narrower and taller than the F12's squat, wall-to-wall rendition, also gently evokes that feature of the 166MM, as does the creased swage line sweeping back along the waist. It's a Carlo Anderloni touch that has recurred on several Touring designs, from the 166 through the #Lamborghini-350GT to the #BMW Mini Vision concept car produced last year. Overall, de Fabribeckers displays a lightness of hand suited to the objective of creating a latter-day Italian luxury express.

    Primary body panels are executed in aluminium formed manually over styling bucks in the traditional manner, which is really the only way to achieve that lovely, long body crease and still have doors that open without shut lines bigger than a politician's expense account. Such non-structural panels as bonnet, skirts and splitters are carbonfibre, and the alloy door handles, exhaust tips and forged wheels are bespoke. Touring poetically refers to this blue metallic paint as Azzurro Nioulargue, alluding to the shifting shades of the Mediterranean, and it genuinely does amazing things in changing light.

    Interior mods seem minor beside the body revamp; the dash is basically the F12's but look closer and you spot instances where carbonfibre has been replaced with brushed aluminium or leather, and discreet niceties such as the colour-coded air con vents, and the Berlinetta Lusso badge below the main triplevent grouping that turns them into a cockpit focal point. Seat facings in cream leather and a matching slash across the door panels and parcel shelf lighten and enrich the atmosphere.

    With multi-way power adjustment for driver's seat and steering column, it's almost impossible not to find a driving position that fits, and the interior is comfortable and surprisingly roomy, reportedly a Ferrari priority with the F12. The new roofline still leaves adequate headroom, assuming you replicate the passably average dimensions of this correspondent. Personal opinions on paddle shifting, automatic parking brakes and similar modernisms put aside, they're exactly the same here as in the F12, and admittedly just as flawless in operation.

    Road performance is also exactly the same, as the mechanical package remains just as #Ferrari made it. Which is to say the whopping normally aspirated V12 will leave you breathless, and that's no half-arsed figure of speech: after the first couple of solid blasts through the gears you'll realise you've actually forgotten to suck any air, and your face has gone all tingly. Although that last symptom might be strictly down to g-forces. Touring also says it tests religiously to ensure the chassis dynamics don't suffer from possible weight re-distribution, and real world driving substantiates that.

    When it comes to pure, raw speed numbers, however, it's hardly worth speculating beyond official factory specs; each #Berlinetta-Lusso could differ in weight, since each will be built to the customer's wishes - and Touring will accommodate a wide variety of those. Flexibility being a company credo, some detailing changes are even in discussion before our subject car goes to Geneva. Consequently, Touring won't quote prices, but it's safe to assume the 5000 hours of various labours required for every unit won't be cheap, and that's on top of the roughly quarter-million pounds' worth of Ferrari stripped down to begin the process.

    Touring Superleggera's agreement with the commissioning client for series production extends at this point to a mere five examples, and completion time is projected as six months from delivery of the donor Ferrari to its workshops in Milan. The car is EU type-approved, and Touring won't rule out having a go at different regs in other parts of the world, such as North America. Small companies can often be extremely flexible.

    From a solely rationalist, functionalist perspective, there will be many who don't understand the Berlinetta Lusso, granted, and anyone who judges a car by its merits as a mechanical device alone must find this a bewildering exercise. But if you appreciate some extra style, grace and sophistication, and oceans of artistry with your high velocity, you'll twig its special place in the automotive cosmos straight away. After all, there were those who preferred the 500 Superfast, and those who preferred the #Ferrari-250GTO . There are also those who think the perfect compromise would be one of each. Individuals of taste and distinction should have more than one suit in their wardrobe, shouldn't they?

    FOR FURTHER INFORMATION on the Berlinetta Lusso visit www. touringsuperleggera. eu

    Car #2015 #Carrozzeria-Touring-Superleggera-Berlinetta-Lusso

    ENGINE 6262CC V12, DOHC, 48-valve, direct fuel injection
    POWER 730bhp @ 8250rpm
    TRANSMISSION Seven-speed dual-clutch sequential transaxle, rear-wheel drive, limited-slip differential
    STEERING Power-assisted rack-and-pinion
    SUSPENSION
    Front: double wishbones, coilsprings, adaptive dampers, anti-roll bar.
    Rear: multi-link, coilsprings, adaptive dampers, anti-roll bar.
    BRAKES Carbon-ceramic discs, #ABS
    PERFORMANCE Top speed 211mph. 0-62mph 3.1sec
    • Touring Superleggera Berlinetta Lusso This year’s Geneva Motorshow must have set a new record in terms of sports-, super-, and hyper-car unveilings oTouring Superleggera Berlinetta Lusso

      This year’s Geneva Motorshow must have set a new record in terms of sports-, super-, and hyper-car unveilings of any motorshow to date, with nearly every brand wanting to take advantage of the surplus disposable cash, floating around globally and itching to be spent. #Carrozzeria-Touring – founded in #1926 in Milan and inventor of the ‘Superleggera’ coachbuilding technique was no exception, and the small Italian coachbuilder arguably presented the most beautiful highlight of the show.

      To brand Carrozzeria Touring’s ‘Touring Superleggera Berlinetta Lusso’ a ‘Ferrari’ would arguably precede great legal implications – primarily for the manufacturing coachbuilder – yet the origins of the Ferrari F12 berlinetta as a basis of this transformation can neither be hidden nor denied, even if all prancing horses were removed prior to its official debut.

      Let’s make this very clear: the Touring (Ferrari) Superleggera Berlinetta Lusso is one beautiful, if not divine, automobile. It is ‘The Empire Strikes Back’ of Louis de Fabribeckers’ design team following the successful Alfa Romeo Disco Volante. One can only but shake one’s head why Maranello has not granted this fiveoff hyper niche product its official seal of approval; certainly more ‘questionable’ beauties have rolled-out Ferrari’s own SP department in recent years.

      The (Ferrari) Berlinetta Lusso is based on Ferrari’s class-slaughtering #F12 #berlinetta and despite 5000 man-hours of craftsmanship and six months of ageing, none of the donor’s benchmark performance figures are compromised in the process. The very subtle modifications include a bonnet, boot-lid and apron in hand-beaten aluminium using the same traditional coachbuilding techniques as once applied pre-1966 by the original Carrozzeria Touring founders Carlo Felice Bianchi Anderloni and Gaetano Ponzoni.

      Design wise one cannot resist appreciating the old-school design approach, trading Italian Upper-Class feel for the ‘Playstation Design’ of its ‘mass –produced’ siblings leaving Maranello’s official factory gates. Could the (Ferrari) Berlinetta Lusso be criticised for being one panel-beat to stale and boring? Possibly, but then again, it only needs five conservative Ultra High Net Worth Individual (UHNWI) collectors, all dreaming of still living in 1950s Dolce Vita, to sellout production; and that must seem realistic, even for the most pessimistic of investors.

      Carrozzeria Touring have done a fantastic job. Would I rather own a Touring ( #Ferrari ) Superleggera Berlinetta Lusso than a #Ferrari-F60 America? Possibly. One thing I am certain of is that every single one of the five very lucky owners will – even before removing the protection film or fuelling – add the badges that Carrozzeria Touring so cavalierly removed, back on where they truly belong.
        More ...
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    WITH ALL DUE RESPECT #1953 FERRARI 375MM PININ FARINA SPIDER

    The legendary Phil Hill used to race this glorious Ferrari barchetta - which is why a perfect cosmetic restoration would have been a sin Dale Drinnon was seduced from the start.

    For a moment I freeze mere inches from the driver's door in a paralysing wave of angst. Then I do my umpteenth re-check for protruding zipper pulls and ballpoint pens in hip pockets, and slip delicately into the cockpit. Brushing a belt buckle against a sparkling new restoration would be nightmare enough; leaving the slightest mark on this car, though, smacks of tearing the flyleaf on a Guttenberg Bible, and my stomach goes fluttery at the mere thought that mine could be the foot that Anally crumbles the antique clutch pedal rubber, or that my fingers erase the last traces of Phil Hill's DNA from the shifter knob.

    This is, after all, more than a rare, milestone, racing Ferrari. It's the singular unrestored #375MM known to remain, a veritable time capsule of 1950s international motor sport, and maybe it really does deserve to be atop a museum pedestal, protected from defilement by un worthies like me. Even after the soothing little pre-launch rituals have been performed, the switches are switched, the fuel pump has pumped, the throttle is half-depressed precisely so, it takes an act of deliberate will to reach out and stab the starter button.

    The V12 whoops to life like I've zapped it with a cattle prod. It isn't the high, lilting, operatic kind of V12 whoop, either; it's a big- bore kind that begins as deep, guttural growl and builds to raw berserker bellow. WHOOP. As though all those decades locked away, still and silent, have only made it meaner and rowdier, less a saintly Lazarus returned divinely from the dead than a psycho-killer busted out of prison and utterly boiling over to kick ass and take names. Suddenly I'm not so much worried about the car; hell no, I'm worried about my own hide.

    Which probably isn't a bad approach for any of the 375-series sports racers, unsullied time capsule or not. Combining the biggest racing engines Enzo Ferrari would produce before the Can-Am and his lifelong indifference to the science of handling ('I build engines,' went an infamous Enzo-ism, 'and attach wheels to them'), along with his conviction that disc brakes were nothing but British voodoo, they were powerful, direct, and elemental, and not to be taken lightly.

    They were also quite effective. Like the 340-series sport preceding it in 1950, the 375 was based on the normally aspirated #Aurelio-Lampredi #Formula-1 V12 that replaced Gioacchino Colombo's much smaller supercharged version. In the case of the 340, it was a 4.1-litre worth 280 horsepower; in 1953, however, Ferrari started fitting two-seaters with the 4.5 (recently legislated out of the monoposto World Drivers' Championship - waste not, want not) making some 340bhp.

    Designated the 375MM - for ' #Mille-Miglia ', of course - and usually in closed Pinin Farina bodywork similar to that of (or, in fact, often inherited from) a #340MM , the new car won two of the three victories that secured #Enzo-Ferrari the inaugural World Sportscar Championship. #Ferrari repeated the title in #1954 with help from the 375MM and the 375MM Plus, a 4.9-litre variant with only four additional horses. In the meantime, however, Ferrari announced a special run of 4.5-litre customer 375MM Pinin Farina Spiders. In 1953, for any serious privateer, that immediately became the Big Gun.

    And wealthy American amateur Bill Spear was pretty serious. Besides winning the 1953 SCCA overall drivers' championship in a 340 America, he had taken seventh at Le Mans that year for Briggs Cunningham (and during his time earned multiple top-five finishes at both Le Mans and Sebring), where a 340/375 Berlinetta set fastest lap and gave Jaguar's C-types everything they could handle until the clutch went south. Spear came home to the States, suitably impressed, and duly ordered one of the sexy new PF Spiders.

    He would receive the car on these pages, Chassis 0382AM, completed in December 1953 and arriving at Luigi Chinetti Motors in New York on New Year's Eve. It was the ninth and final copy from the official batch of 4.5 customer Spiders (although 26 of the 375MM series were reportedly built in total). To break it in properly, Spear entered the car that March in the USA's longest, toughest event - the 12 Hours of Sebring - with frequent collaborator Phil Hill as co-driver.

    They made a good team, battling at the front with the fierce #Lancia D24s right from the start, and Spear was leading when a differential problem sidelined them on lap 60. Over the balance of 1954, he ran a busy nine-race domestic schedule with 0382, winning four, coming second twice, and claiming a still- standing track record on the last of the legendary Watkins Glen public road courses. He finished second in season points, behind only the even wealthier Jim Kimberly - in another 375MM Pinin Farina Spider.

    For #1955 Spear moved to a #Maserati 300S, less powerful but friendlier, which placed him third at Sebring, and he sold the Ferrari on. It thereafter followed the usual ageing race-car syndrome of owner changes, alternating track and road use, and slow decline, but stayed in SCCA 'new car' racing for a surprisingly long while, until #1966 . In #1972 it finally passed from motoring author and historic racer Joel Finn to John B 'Ian' Gunn, who gave 0382 its last competitive outing, finishing fourth at the #1973 Watkins Glen Vintage GP. He then parked the car in his garage, with tired brakes, a baulky gearbox and general exhaustion.

    It stayed there untouched for more than 36 years. But don't assume 0382 was forgotten. Gunn, an eminent physicist specialising in electronics (you're likely near a Gunn Diode even as we speak) as well as a motorcycle racer and collector, and a compulsive home mechanic and machinist, apparently just decided bike racing was more fun, and restoring cars for cosmetic reasons wasn't his style. Nonetheless he loved the Ferrari, and refused to sell it. Upon his death in 2008, those wonky brakes were probably still on his to-do list; it was simply a very long list.

    Fortunately, Andreas Mohringer, the well- known Austrian enthusiast of classic racing machinery, has a similar aversion to restoration for restoration's sake. He bought the car from the Gunn family in March 2010 and immediately sent it to Paul Russell and Company, of Essex, Massachusetts, to be mechanically re-commissioned, and left in gloriously age-ripened, as-raced for 19 unpampered years, unrestored condition.

    He made an excellent choice of shops; Paul Russell and his colleagues, including those whose jobs don't directly involve the hands-on technical disciplines, conduct their world-class restoration facility in the manner you'd expect from a world-class medical practice - with conscientious deliberation and great concern. The prime directive of this project was in fact, as Paul likes to say, 'the traditional physician's credo: first, do no Harm.'

    Given the established mission statement of minimum-possible intervention, that meant considerable patience and commensurate forethought. The engine was pulled, for example, and the cylinders oil-soaked for a week before it was even turned over by hand, and then supplied externally with full oil flow and pressure on a test stand before being spun on the starter.

    In spite of the caution, compression was good and so was valve action, so the cylinder heads were never removed. Likewise, the timing chain proved acceptable, but the tensioner was marginal, so a replacement was made for the spacer Ian Gunn had machined in the '70s to address the same problem.

    As always, a plethora of little things threw up their roadblocks, too. Removing the lids of old Webers for rebuilding is never straightforward; they're invariably stuck solid, and any attempt at prying them off ruins both the brittle aluminium and the gaskets underneath; in this case, they were no longer available. Standard procedure calls for a gentle sideways hammer tap - which yielded absolutely nothing. The solution, technician Bob Lapane told me, was ultimately 'heat and cold cycles... lots and lots of them'.

    ‘It’s a genuine delight up to 95%, but in those last five ticks it’ll swing around like a bad habit’

    The issue of replacement or refurbishment on an individual component, however, sometimes came down to 'correct for period', and the period chosen was the car's latter SCCA years. Therefore the American brake master cylinder fitted by Gunn right after the 1973 historic race was ditched for original equipment, while the seat covers, looking suspiciously like ski boat items but visible in early-60s photographs, were removed by upholsterer Richard Barnes, painstakingly cleaned, re-stitched, and reinstalled. Even the period tyres, so fossilised they could support the car without air pressure, were re-used, at least for the unveiling at Pebble Beach.

    In the end, hardly anything was replaced outright except pure expendables such as clutch friction material. Walking around the car at Russell and Co it looks every inch its battle-scared original self, down to the slightly askew jaw-line leftover from pouncing atop a Formula Junior racer in 1966, the incident that changed SCCA philosophy on which cars should share a track together. On the bulkhead behind the driver's seat a splatter of ancient scrutineering stickers remain; the seat itself is so 1954-close to the steering wheel that it's hard to believe the amply proportioned Bill Spear could have squeezed himself in.

    Being medium of build, however, and not of the straight-arm driving school, I'm relieved to find it suits me perfectly. It's also comforting to sit so high in the cockpit, with a clear, reassuring view. Although not really comforting enough to keep my mind off the story of a previous owner I won't name who allegedly looped this sucker on his debut drive. Twice. Before getting out of the car park.

    So I'm supremely, agonisingly circumspect in the initial stages and, quite happily, the car responds in kind. Mild-mannered might be a misnomer; it certainly is civilised, though, and well beyond my expectations so long as it's treated with respect. The car can be launched neatly on reasonable revs, although it loads up quickly if asked to labour long below 4000rpm, and a fair dose of raucous throttle- blipping is necessary to keep the carbs clear. (A pity, that. Ahem.)

    Clutch take-up is smooth and dead easy; the brakes have a high, hard pedal, pull up evenly and in an acceptable distance on light-to- medium demand, and with four-wheel drums and 340bhp, I have no intention whatsoever of demanding anything more.

    The transmission requires some getting used to; on inspection at Paul Russell, the synchros were found to be naught but shrapnel in the bottom of the casing and, since a concours deadline was looming, the internals were shimmed to compensate and it was reassembled as a crash 'box. That said, it still shifts better than some that were designed unsynchronised from the get-go.

    Above. The 375MM #Pinin-Farina Spider ( #Pininfarina )looks delicate and pretty, especially from this angle, yet it was tough and brawny enough to compete in the demanding Sebring 12 Hours.

    With a measure of low-speed acquaintance safely under my belt, I become progressively braver, and it's easy to see how you could quickly become over-confident with 0382. Whereas the #340MM was constantly nervous and everyone knew it, too many to their mortal detriment, the #Ferrari-375MM is much like a Lancia Stratos or early #Porsche-911 : a genuine delight up to 95%, but in those last five ticks it'll swing around like a bad habit if you're unready or unable. Power oversteer must come to it as naturally as whacking an unwary gazelle comes to a hungry lioness, and with roughly equal warning.

    But true to Mr Ferrari's promises, there is nothing at all wrong with this engine. Every start is on the button, as long as you remember to half-crack the Webers; power and response are smooth and instant, and despite my prudent regard for age and provenance - no, honestly - it flings me down the road with a heart-pounding satisfaction. It's loud, macho and incredibly seductive, and soon I'm thinking, well, hey, the owner uses this regularly at events such as the Goodwood Festival of Speed and Bahamas Speed Week, surely it couldn't hurt to have one, good, full-on charge through the gears...

    Then, from a sky that scant seconds earlier had appeared completely innocent, a faint sneer of raindrops litters the windscreen; unbidden, my right foot lifts in amazingly direct proportion to the puckering I experience elsewhere about my anatomy.

    I immediately turn around, revs barely above tickover, and crawl back to base. There's brave, dear reader, and there's plain old crazy, and, sometimes, you've really got to recognise the difference.

    THANKS TO Paul Russell and Company, www. paulrussell. com.

    Right. The great Phil Hill once sat behind this wheel and the Ferrari scored four race victories in its maiden season; triple-carb 4.5-litre V12 puts out 340bhp.

    Right. Any imperfections that were evident in this gorgeous car’s (now) 62-year-old bodywork at the end of its unusually long racing career are still present - and correct.

    Car 1953 #Ferrari-375MM-Pininfarina-Spider
    ENGINE 4522cc V12, SOHC perbank, three four-barrel #Weber 40 IF/4C carburettors
    POWER 340bhp @ 7000rpm
    TORQUE 300lb ft @ 4300rpm
    TRANSMISSION Four-speed manual, rear-wheel drive
    STEERING Worm and sector
    SUSPENSION
    Front: double wishbones, transverse leaf spring, Houdaille dampers.
    Rear: live axle, semi-elliptic leaf springs, trailing arms, Houdaille dampers.
    BRAKES Drums
    WEIGHT 899kg
    PERFORMANCE Top speed 170mph. 0-60mph 5.5 sec (est)

    'This is more than a milestone racing Ferrari. It’s the singular unrestored 375MM known to remain'
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  • Post is under moderation
    #Ferrari-512BBi
    Name Les Arrowsmith
    From Sunderland
    Occupation Criminal law adviser
    Age 67
    First classic #Fiat 125 Special
    Dream classic Already got it
    Favourite driving song Steel Guitor Rog Bob Wills
    Best drive 128mph near Munich in an #Alfa Giulia 1750 GTV

    FRIEND REUNITED WITH A BOXER

    In 1982, I wrote a cheeky letter to #Enzo-Ferrari requesting a factory visit. I also sent letters to Lancia and Alfa Romeo, but only one came back, an invitation from the great man himself, signed in his characteristic purple ink. It invited me to visit Maranello when I travelled to Italy in July; the significance of the time will become apparent later.

    My wife and I left the kids with their grandparents and set off on a Grand lour, the highlight of which was that trip to Ferrari. Little did I realise as I admired the cars on the line and in the yard that I would become a Ferrari owner. Times changed, though, and in #1999 I bought a #308GT4 . I had five years of fun with that agile V8 #Dino before buying a #Mondial qv.

    By #2004 , I had embarked on the most financially rewarding period of my life and set out to buy the car that would stay with me forever.

    And it came down to two: the #Maserati-Bora or the #Ferrari-Boxer .

    Twice I was ready to jump on a plane with a fist full of banknotes and drive home in a Bora. What made me hesitate was the sheer complexity of die Citroen-derived systems. In comparison, all Ferraris of that period were just big go-karts on wheels: a chassis, some electrics, a seat and a strong engine. Furthermore, I noticed Boxer prices were on the up so I slotted a ‘Wanted’ advert into the Ferrari Owners' Club magazine and received a phonecall from a man in East Sussex who was prepared to offer me his red 1982 512BBi.

    No price was mentioned, but I dispatched my helicopter technician son, with his digital camera, to have a test drive and inspect the car. The seller confessed to one thing that he had never overcome in a decade of ownership; the car had always had a low-speed misfire.

    I phoned East Sussex again with a maximum price in mind and astonishingly the figure the seller mentioned was precisely what I had thought to offer! The deal was done on a metaphorical handshake.

    Without having set eyes on the car, payment was sent and all I got back was the V5 registration document and a spare set of alloy wheels. I had ignored every rule of Ferrari buying: I hadn't seen it, I hadn't had it tested and 141 already parted with the money even though the beast clearly had a fault.

    In June, I finally got first sight of my new acquisition when I flew down to Sussex to collect it. I was surprised how neat and small a Boxer is; about the same dimensions as a #308GTB and nothing like the modem generation of Ferraris.
    I was soon impressed with how civilised the Boxer is. It’s really quite quiet, especially if you’re used to the whining, snarling, bellowing transverse V8s. In this car you can have a conversation at motorway speeds. The flat-12 has a different tone to a V12 and has occasionally reminded me of a Beetle, but when you spin it round to 7200rpm a supernatural wail comes in.
    Apart from the misfire, other idiosyncrasies have become apparent. Notably, about 80% of the space is used up by machinery and running gear. What little remains is the cockpit; put two people in there and the car is full! There’s practically nowhere to stow luggage and travelling two-up you’ve got a problem if you suffer a puncture. Well your companion has - there’s no space for a rear wheel in the nose where the bicycle-sized ‘Space Saver' lives so the wheel goes in the passenger seat and the passenger gets the train!

    To return to the beginning, and why that #1982 visit to Maranello was significant. According to the production certificate, my car, which is chassis 43089, was finished on 22 July 1982. That was just 11 days after my tour, so I must have walked past my Boxer on the production line. I could never have dreamed that it would be mine at that time; talk about rags to riches.
    Arrowsmith at Auto Italia with his dream Ferrari, bought some 25 years after he must have walked past it on Maranello's line.

    At home with second #Ferrari , a Mondial qv.
    512BBi looking menacing at #Sitverstone .
    Compromised packaging: get a puncture and your passenger has to find their own way home.
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